Thematic Case Reviews

In these thematic reviews, the organisation and presentation of cases will be based on the latest educational research, including literature exploring the role of expertise in radiologic image interpretation; how to promote active learning in radiology trainees, and activities to simulate how experts through deliberate practice generate a holistic high-level representation of the image, which then fine-tunes the perception of potential lesions. These reviews will leverage on the large database of online published and unpublished (at the moment) "normal" and "abnormal" cases. Selected use of didactic instructional videos will be included.



Tuesday, 6 June 2017

Templated Radiology Reporting and Instructional Scaffolding - When to remove / progressively remove this performance support

"Similar to the scaffolding used in construction to support workers as they work on a specific task, instructional scaffolds are temporary support structures faculty put in place to assist students in accomplishing new tasks and concepts they could not typically achieve on their own. Once students are able to complete or master the task, the scaffolding is gradually removed or fades away—the responsibility of learning shifts from the instructor to the student."

above from
http://www.niu.edu/facdev/_pdf/guide/strategies/instructional_scaffolding_to_improve_learning.pdf

http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111017/chapters/Scaffolds-for-Learning@-The-Key-to-Guided-Instruction.aspx

https://www.edutopia.org/blog/scaffolding-lessons-six-strategies-rebecca-alber


According to MerriĆ«nboer et al. (2002): “ The 4C/ID-model [....] addresses at least three deficits in previous instructional design models. First, the 4C/ID-model focuses on the integration and coordinated performance of task-specific constituent skills rather than on knowledge types, context or presentation-delivery media. Second, the model makes a critical distinction between supportive information and required just-in-time (JIT) information (the latter specifies the performance required, not only the type of knowledge required). And third, traditional models use either part-task or whole-task practice; the 4C/IDmodel recommends a mixture where part-task practice supports very complex, "whole-task" learning.”

According to Merrill (2002:56), the model is clearly problem-based although not in the sense of typical problem-based learning models. “ At the heart of this training strategy is whole-task practice, in which more and more complex versions of the whole complex cognitive skill are practiced. In ... the analysis phase ... the skill is decomposed in a hierarchy of constituent skills; ... classified as recurrent constituent skills, which require more-or-less consistent performance over problem situations, or nonrecurrent constituent skills, which require highly variable performance over situations" (p. 8). "While learners practice simple to complex versions of a whole task, instructional methods that promote just-intime information presentation are used to support the recurrent aspects of the whole task while, at the same time, instructional methods that promote elaboration are used to support the non-recurrent aspects of the task" (p. 10).”

above from
http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/4C-ID

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RSNA's Reporting Initiative is improving radiology reporting practices by building IT standards and a library of clear and consistent report templates.

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"By reviewing research on medical performance and education, the author describes evidence for these representations and their development within the expert- performance framework. He uses the research to generate suggestions for improved training of medical students and professionals. Two strategies— designing learning environments with libraries of cases and creating opportunities for individualized teacher-guided training—should enable motivated individuals to acquire a full set of refined mental representations. Providing the right resources to support the expert- performance approach will allow such individuals to become self-regulated learners—that is, members of the medical community who have the tools to improve their own and their team members’ performances throughout their entire professional careers.'
from abstract of
Ericsson KA. Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Acad Med. 2015 Nov;90(11):1471-86. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000939. PubMed PMID: 26375267.


above from

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.sg/2016/12/moving-forward-future-plans.html



Medical Education Peer Reviewed Publications (selected)

The intention of writing a recent series of reflection pieces (article 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11), as well the other articles below, was to set down in print as many of the useful ideas / and pointers I could think of, and which I have found useful and currently use, on the subject of TeL and implementing this, distilled from my reading, practice, and scholarly inquiry since 2002, as well as from the last 6 years of faculty development presentations, symposia and workshops I have been involved in designing and have participated in at NUS, at APMEC and AMEE; and have presented as invited speaker to conferences in Colombo, Sri Lanka; Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Jakarta, Indonesia; and as visiting professor in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
(articles in Medical Teacher and MedEdPublish have been viewed over 5,000 times in the 2015 and 2016, and papers 2, 4, 5 and 6 are amongst the top rated papers in Oct, Nov, Dec 2016 and Jan 2017 - see below)

1. Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4. https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000067

2. Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. Insights from the culinary arts for medical educators. MedEdPublish. 2017 Jan; 6(1), Paper No:10. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

3. Goh, P.S. A proposal for a grading and ranking method as the first step toward developing a scoring system to measure the value and impact of viewership of online material in medical education - going beyond “clicks” and views toward learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:62. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

4. Goh, P.S. Presenting the outline of a proposal for a 5 part program of medical education research using eLearning or Technology enhanced learning to support Learning through the continuum of Undergraduate, through Postgraduate to Lifelong learning settings. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:55. Epub 2016 Dec 7. 

5. Goh, P.S. The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:31. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000117
https://www.mededworld.org/AMEE-News/AMEE-Articles/MedEdPublish-Top-rated-papers-November-2016.aspx

6. Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

7. Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
8. Sandars, J., Goh, P.S. Is there a need for a specific educational scholarship for using e-learning in medical education? Med Teach. 2016 Oct;38(10):1070-1071. Epub 2016 April 19.

9. Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982639

10. Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. An innovative approach to digitally flip the classroom by using an online "graffiti wall" with a blog. Med Teach. 2016 Aug;38(8):858. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

11. Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

12. Sandars J, Patel RS, Goh PS, Kokatailo PK, Lafferty N. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Mar 17:1-4.

13. Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5.

14. Liaw SY, Wong LF, Chan SW, Ho JT, Mordiffi SZ, Ang SB, Goh PS, Ang EN. Designing and evaluating an interactive multimedia Web-based simulation for developing nurses' competencies in acute nursing care: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Jan 12;17(1):e5.

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"We can manage better (to iteratively improve, share and build on) what is visible, what we can see – directly, through data, and data dashboards-visual data maps and illustrations. Data and observations, big data and small or rich data, quantitative and qualitative research (mixed methods research) gives us insights as educators into our teaching practice, its effectiveness and impact. Just as we blend the best features of traditional and online/eLearning/Technology enhanced learning in our teaching practice, we can “blend” and take advantage of “big data” or online data analytics, which when added to traditional classroom observations and measures-indicators of learning effectiveness and impact, can give us a more complete, comprehensive, and rounded picture of individual, and group learning." 

above from

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"A good teacher is continuously observant of student learning behaviour, and seeks evidence of student engagement with the learning material and experience, as well as evidence of learning, and also proactively solicits feedback from students and peers to continually improve the learning
experience. Good chefs can be seen circulating amongst the diners, observing their eating behaviour, chatting with and seeking feedback directly from diners, as well as inviting fellow chefs to sample their culinary offerings. As teachers we have an opportunity to do this both in traditional classrooms, as well as online settings, through our own direct observations, as well as with online behavioural and data analytics. Chefs often modify their cooking, and refine this in “real time”. Similarly teachers can modify their teaching, and the learning experience dynamically, in response to the observed behaviour and feedback from learners and peers."

"We feel that there are close parallels between the culinary arts and practices with the teaching and learning practices of medical educators. In this article we explore this culinary analogy as a means to help medical educators think about their educational practices and to develop their scholarship in medical education."

above from
Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. Insights from the culinary arts for medical educators. MedEdPublish. 2017 Jan; 6(1), Paper No:10. Epub 2017 Jan 18.












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