Thematic Case Reviews

In these thematic reviews, the organisation and presentation of cases will be based on the latest educational research, including literature exploring the role of expertise in radiologic image interpretation; how to promote active learning in radiology trainees, and activities to simulate how experts through deliberate practice generate a holistic high-level representation of the image, which then fine-tunes the perception of potential lesions. These reviews will leverage on the large database of online published and unpublished (at the moment) "normal" and "abnormal" cases. Selected use of didactic instructional videos will be included.







Friday, 2 February 2018

Radiology Resident Tutorial February 2018 (2)

"How could one use this material to dramatically reduce case review time? 
Reduce study time?

Reduce residency duration?
Use training time in other ways?"

"How would you use this material to develop confidence and familiarity with less common conditions? 
Given that time is limited."

"How do you stay sharp, not rusty, get better (sharper)."

[Practice. With feedback. With reflection. With increasing difficulty. Systematically. Regularly. With material that is at hand. At your finger tips.]
        -Poh Sun (posted on 7 February 2018 @ 0358am)












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This article investigates the relation between mind wandering and the spacing effect in inductive learning. Participants studied works of art by different artists grouped in blocks, where works by a particular artist were either presented all together successively (the massed condition), or interleaved with the works of other artists (the spaced condition). The works of 24 artists were shown, with 12, 15, or 18 works by each artist being provided as exemplars. Later, different works by the same artists were presented for a test of the artists' identity. During the course of studying these works, participants were probed for mind wandering. It was found that people mind wandered more when the exemplars were presented in a massed rather than in a spaced manner, especially as the task progressed. There was little mind wandering and little difference between massed and spaced conditions toward the beginning of study. People were better able to correctly attribute the new works to the appropriate artist (inductive learning) when (a) they were in the spaced condition and (b) they had not been mind wandering. This research suggests that inductive learning may be influenced by mind wandering and that the impairment in learning with massed practice (compared to spaced practice) may be attributable, at least in part, to attentional factors-people are "on task" less fully when the stimuli are massed rather than spaced.
above abstract from


Inductive learning -- that is, learning a new concept or category by observing exemplars -- happens constantly, for example, when a baby learns a new word or a doctor classifies x-rays. What influence does the spacing of exemplars have on induction? Compared with massing, spacing enhances long-term recall, but we expected spacing to hamper induction by making the commonalities that define a concept or category less apparent. We asked participants to study multiple paintings by different artists, with a given artist's paintings presented consecutively (massed) or interleaved with other artists' paintings (spaced). We then tested induction by asking participants to indicate which studied artist (Experiments 1a and 1b) or whether any studied artist (Experiment 2) painted each of a series of new paintings. Surprisingly, induction profited from spacing, even though massing apparently created a sense of fluent learning: Participants rated massing as more effective than spacing, even after their own test performance had demonstrated the opposite.
above abstract from


see examples from Head and Neck Radiology also link below


When students encounter a set of concepts (or terms or principles) that are similar in some way, they often confuse one with another. For instance, they might mistake one word for another word with a similar spelling (e.g., allusion instead of illusion) or choose the wrong strategy for a mathematics problem because it resembles a different kind of problem. By one proposition explored in this review, these kinds of errors occur more frequently when all exposures to one of the concepts are grouped together. For instance, in most middle school science texts, the questions in each assignment are devoted to the same concept, and this blocking of exposures ensures that students need not learn to distinguish between two similar concepts. In an alternative approach described in this review, exposures to each concept are interleaved with exposures to other concepts, so that a question on one concept is followed by a question on a different concept. In a number of experiments that have compared interleaving and blocking, interleaving produced better scores on final tests of learning. The evidence is limited, though, and ecologically valid studies are needed. Still, a prudent reading of the data suggests that at least a portion of the exposures should be interleaved.
above quote from
Rohrer, D. (2012). Interleaving helps students distinguish among similar concepts. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 355-367


Learn To Study Using…Interleaving (The Learning Scientists)
















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Previous tutorial (link below)




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"Technology enhanced learning or eLearning allows educators to expand access to educational content, promotes engagement with students and makes it easier for students to access educational material at a time, place and pace which suits them. The challenge for educators beginning their eLearning journey is to decide where to start, which includes the choice of an eLearning tool and platform. This article will share one educator's decision making process, and experience using blogs as a flexible and versatile integrated eLearning tool and platform. Apart from being a cost effective/free tool and platform, blogs offer the possibility of creating a hyperlinked indexed content repository, for both created and curated educational material; as well as a distribution and engagement tool and platform. Incorporating pedagogically sound activities and educational practices into a blog promote a structured templated teaching process, which can be reproduced. Moving from undergraduate to postgraduate training, educational blogs supported by a comprehensive online case-based repository offer the possibility of training beyond competency towards proficiency and expert level performance through a process of deliberate practice. By documenting educational content and the student engagement and learning process, as well as feedback and personal reflection of educational sessions, blogs can also form the basis for a teaching portfolio, and provide evidence and data of scholarly teaching and educational scholarship. Looking into the future, having a collection of readily accessible indexed hyperlinked teaching material offers the potential to do on the spot teaching with illustrative material called up onto smart surfaces, and displayed on holographic interfaces."

Above abstract from 
Goh PS. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9.
[2015 Nov 11:1-2. Epub ahead of print]


"By reviewing research on medical performance and education, the author describes evidence for these representations and their development within the expert- performance framework. He uses the research to generate suggestions for improved training of medical students and professionals. Two strategies— designing learning environments with libraries of cases and creating opportunities for individualized teacher-guided training—should enable motivated individuals to acquire a full set of refined mental representations. Providing the right resources to support the expert- performance approach will allow such individuals to become self-regulated learners—that is, members of the medical community who have the tools to improve their own and their team members’ performances throughout their entire professional careers.'
from abstract of
Ericsson KA. Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Acad Med. 2015 Nov;90(11):1471-86. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000939. PubMed PMID: 26375267.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375267/?ncbi_mmode=std


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'https://learningneuroradiology.blogspot.sg/2017/05/case-5112.html

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Previous tutorials (link below)

https://learningneuroradiology.blogspot.sg/2017/05/radiology-resident-tutorial-0745am.html

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